Hyperdontia is a dental disorder that results in the growth of too many teeth in the mouth. Such extra teeth are known as supernumerary teeth that can develop anywhere in the curved surface where the teeth are attached to the jaw. The area is the dental arch.
Some Common Symptoms of Hyperdontia
Its most common and usual system is developing extra teeth directly close to or behind the permanent or primary teeth. It generally happens in the case of adults and is mostly seen in men than in women. The extra tooth is categorized based on the location or shape in the mouth. The different shapes include,
- Peg-shaped or Conical- This is a wide-tooth at the base that narrows near the top, making it appear sharp.
- Complex Odontoma- Here, a surface of tooth-like tissue develops in disordered groups.
- Supplemental- The shape of the tooth is akin to the tooth type which it grows near
- Compound Odontoma- Here, the tooth has many tooth-like growths adjacent to each other
- Tuberculate- The tooth possesses a barrel-like or tube shape
Where Do the Extra Teeth Grow (Location)?
- Mesiodens- An additional tooth develops around or behind the incisor. The four flat teeth in front of the mouth are for biting. It is a prevalent form of the extra tooth, especially in those with hyperdontia.
- Distomolar- An additional tooth develops in line with the other molars instead of around them
- Paramolar- An additional tooth develops at the back of the mouth, adjacent to one of the molars
Common Causes of Hyperdontia
The causes of this dental disorder are not fully understood yet. However, there is a belief that genetic factor is a reason behind having such extra teeth, coupled with some environmental factors which can add to the growth. Hyperdontia causes often results from genetic disorders such as,
- Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome
- Nance-Horan syndrome
- Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome
- Ellis van Creveld syndrome
- Cleidocranial dysplasia
- Fabry disease
- Cleft lip & palate
- Gardner’s syndrome
How to Treat Hyperdontia?
Hyperdontia, in some cases, may not need treatment. But some dental problems may happen due to the development of the extra teeth in the mouth. In such cases, you need to find an emergency dentist. These problems include
- Aesthetic issues with the visibility of the extra teeth
- Tooth decay owing to difficulty to clean the teeth effectively
- Crooked teeth
- Crowded teeth
- Problems with usual teeth erupting
- Speech problems
- Difficulties chewing food
Due to the different potential issues, dentists recommend hyperdontia treatment. People with severe or multiple hyperdontia are likely to see a big difference before the treatment and after the treatment regarding normal speech and ease of chewing. Depending on the patient’s age and the number of supernumerary teeth, the dentist suggests a mix of these treatments. If your child has hyperdontia, then consult a licensed Springfield pediatric dentistry.
- Removal of Hyperdontia – Having that one additional tooth can cause many issues, so a dentist generally suggests removing that extra tooth. Typically, they opt for the removal by 7 years of age to reduce disruption in other teeth’ growth. Seeing a child having more than twenty baby teeth is easy on the part of the dentist. About 50% of kids with additional baby teeth are likely to have extra teeth developing as adults. However, adults have more chances of having hyperdontia than children; hence, this is no hard & fast rule.
- Braces in Adults and Kids – When people have extra teeth, they are likely to have crooked teeth. That is because the supernumerary teeth generally push the other teeth out of line. After completing the hyperdontia teeth removal, the dentist may recommend orthodontic treatment using braces to strengthen the patient’s smile. Today different forms of braces are used for orthodontic treatment. For instance, the dentist puts fixed braces made of transparent or metal brackets to the teeth and connected with bands and wires.
Gradually, the dental expert moves the teeth correctly into that desired position with regular adjustments. These braces are for straightening crooked teeth resulting from hyperdontia. Again there are invisible braces, which are removal clear aligners. They are fixed over the teeth like a mouthguard and hard to notice. It is a convenient and inconspicuous option for adults and teens who look for invisible braces.
- Veneers, Crowns, and Fillings – The extra tooth, when left for an additional time in the mouth or gum roof, may damage the other surrounding teeth. Flossing and brushing become a challenge in the presence of teeth in hard to reach and awkward positions despite using a water flosser and an electric toothbrush. After any tooth extraction suggested by the dentist, the patient may need additional treatment to get their smile into good shape. Here the dentist uses filling for plugging small cavities and veneers for covering misshapen teeth, or a crown may protect teeth that have been poorly affected by decay.
Having hyperdontia is not a cause of worry. When detected early, the treatment can be useful and simple.